# Infinity auf deutsch

It was only at the point where knowledge of how to purposefully create new knowledge through good explanations was acquired that the beginning of infinity took off during the enlightenment.

His explanation for human creativity is that it evolved as a way to faithfully reproduce existing memes , as this would require creative intelligence to produce a refined rule set that would more faithfully reproduce the existing memes that happened to confer benefit and all the other memes too.

From this increased creative ability, the ability to create new memes emerged and humans thus became universal constructors and technological development accelerated.

Deutsch criticizes Jared Diamond 's resource luck theories as to why the West came to dominate the other continents outlined in his book Guns, Germs, and Steel.

For Deutsch, the sustained creation of knowledge could have arisen anywhere and led to a beginning of infinity; it just happened to arise in Europe first.

Deutsch extols the philosophical concept of optimism , where although problems are inevitable, solutions will always exist provided the right knowledge is sought out and acquired.

David Albert , a philosophy professor at Columbia University , has described the book in a New York Times review as "brilliant and exhilarating" but presenting, instead of a "tight, grand, cumulative system of ideas," a "great, wide, learned, meandering conversation.

But when he tries to apply his ideas to aesthetics, cultural creativity and moral philosophy, he seems on shakier ground and is less commanding as a result.

Mr Deutsch argues that decent explanations inform moral philosophy, political philosophy and even aesthetics.

He is provocative and persuasive. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The Beginning of Infinity Hardcover edition. A quantum physicist's long-awaited second book".

Retrieved 15 September Brain the size of Birmingham, ego bigger still". How to foster the growth of scientific knowledge: The Wall Street Journal.

Retrieved 17 September How We Became the Center of the Universe". Retrieved from " https: Books by David Deutsch books Philosophy books Physics books Scientific revolution Philosophy of science literature.

Pages to import images to Wikidata. Views Read Edit View history. This is an example of what is called a mathematical singularity , or a point where a physical theory breaks down.

This does not necessarily mean that physical infinities exist; it may mean simply that the theory is incapable of describing the situation properly.

Two other examples occur in inverse-square force laws of the gravitational force equation of Newtonian gravity and Coulomb's law of electrostatics.

The first published proposal that the universe is infinite came from Thomas Digges in Living beings inhabit these worlds.

Cosmologists have long sought to discover whether infinity exists in our physical universe: Are there an infinite number of stars? Does the universe have infinite volume?

Does space "go on forever"? This is an open question of cosmology. The question of being infinite is logically separate from the question of having boundaries.

The two-dimensional surface of the Earth, for example, is finite, yet has no edge. By travelling in a straight line with respect to the Earth's curvature one will eventually return to the exact spot one started from.

The universe, at least in principle, might have a similar topology. If so, one might eventually return to one's starting point after travelling in a straight line through the universe for long enough.

The curvature of the universe can be measured through multipole moments in the spectrum of the cosmic background radiation. As to date, analysis of the radiation patterns recorded by the WMAP spacecraft hints that the universe has a flat topology.

This would be consistent with an infinite physical universe. However, the universe could be finite, even if its curvature is flat.

An easy way to understand this is to consider two-dimensional examples, such as video games where items that leave one edge of the screen reappear on the other.

The topology of such games is toroidal and the geometry is flat. Many possible bounded, flat possibilities also exist for three-dimensional space.

The concept of infinity also extends to the multiverse hypothesis, which, when explained by astrophysicists such as Michio Kaku , posits that there are an infinite number and variety of universes.

These are defined as the result of arithmetic overflow , division by zero , and other exceptional operations.

Some programming languages , such as Java [41] and J , [42] allow the programmer an explicit access to the positive and negative infinity values as language constants.

These can be used as greatest and least elements , as they compare respectively greater than or less than all other values. They have uses as sentinel values in algorithms involving sorting , searching , or windowing.

In languages that do not have greatest and least elements, but do allow overloading of relational operators , it is possible for a programmer to create the greatest and least elements.

In languages that do not provide explicit access to such values from the initial state of the program, but do implement the floating-point data type , the infinity values may still be accessible and usable as the result of certain operations.

Perspective artwork utilizes the concept of vanishing points , roughly corresponding to mathematical points at infinity , located at an infinite distance from the observer.

This allows artists to create paintings that realistically render space, distances, and forms. Escher is specifically known for employing the concept of infinity in his work in this and other ways.

Variations of chess played on an unbounded board are called infinite chess. Cognitive scientist George Lakoff considers the concept of infinity in mathematics and the sciences as a metaphor.

The symbol is often used romantically to represent eternal love. Several types of jewelry are fashioned into the infinity shape for this purpose.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses of "Infinity" and "Infinite", see Infinity disambiguation. Cardinality and Ordinal number.

Cardinality of the continuum. The Princeton Companion to Mathematics. Archived from the original on Extract of page Archived at the Wayback Machine.

Retrieved April 3, Haddad; VijaySekhar Chellaboina February 17, Nonlinear Dynamical Systems and Control: Archived from the original on April 4, Archived from the original on April 3, Annals of Library and Information Studies.

Retrieved 16 May Landmark Writings in Western Mathematics In Zalta, Edward N. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The Question of the Reality of Infinitesimal Magnitudes".

Archived from the original on 15 February Retrieved 16 February Retrieved 7 April Communicating the Science and Culture of Astrobiology illustrated ed.

In Quest of the Universe illustrated ed. Archived from the original on 1 June Retrieved 16 March Archived from the original on 10 April The Shape of Space.

Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Archived from the original on 9 June Retrieved 6 September Archived from the original on 25 March Mathematics for the nonmathematician.

An infinite chess scheme. A; Joel David Hamkins Controversy over Cantor's theory. Internal set theory Non-standard analysis Set theory Synthetic differential geometry.

Knuth's up-arrow notation Conway chained arrow notation Steinhaus—Moser notation. Infinitesimal Number systems Number names Orders of magnitude List of notable numbers Indefinite and fictitious numbers Extended real number line Power of two Power of 10 Long and short scales Titanic prime Gigantic prime Megaprime Largest known prime number.

Major topics in Analysis. Integration Differentiation Differential equations ordinary - partial Fundamental theorem of calculus Calculus of variations Vector calculus Tensor calculus List of integrals Table of derivatives.

Retrieved from " https: Infinity Concepts in logic Philosophy of mathematics Philosophical concepts Mathematical objects. Webarchive template wayback links Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from April Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from June Articles with unsourced statements from February All accuracy disputes Articles with disputed statements from November Articles with unsourced statements from January Wikipedia articles with NDL identifiers.

The source of intelligence is more complicated than brute computational power, Deutsch conjectures, and he points to the lack of progress in Turing test AI programs in the six decades since the Turing test was first proposed.

What matters for knowledge creation, Deutsch says, is creativity. New ideas that provide good explanations for phenomena require outside-the-box thinking as the unknown is not easily predicted from past experience.

To test this Deutsch suggests an AI behavioural evolution program for robot locomotion should be fed random numbers to see if knowledge spontaneously arises without inadvertent contamination from a human programmer's creative input.

If it did Deutsch would concede that intelligence is not as difficult a problem as he currently thinks it is. Deutsch sees quantum superpositions and the Schrödinger equation as evidence for his many worlds quantum multiverse , where everything physically possible occurs in an infinite branching of alternate histories.

Deutsch argues that a great deal of fiction is close to a fact somewhere in the multiverse. Deutsch explains that interference offers evidence for this multiverse phenomenon where alternate histories affect one another without allowing the passage of information, as they fungibly intertwine again shortly after experiencing alternate events.

According to Deutsch, our perspective on any object we detect with our senses is just a single universe slice of a much larger quantum multiverse object.

Deutsch speculates on the process of human-culture development from a genetic basis through to a memetic emergence.

This emergence led to the creation of static societies where innovation occurs, but most of the time at a rate too slow for individuals to notice during their lifetimes.

It was only at the point where knowledge of how to purposefully create new knowledge through good explanations was acquired that the beginning of infinity took off during the enlightenment.

His explanation for human creativity is that it evolved as a way to faithfully reproduce existing memes , as this would require creative intelligence to produce a refined rule set that would more faithfully reproduce the existing memes that happened to confer benefit and all the other memes too.

From this increased creative ability, the ability to create new memes emerged and humans thus became universal constructors and technological development accelerated.

Deutsch criticizes Jared Diamond 's resource luck theories as to why the West came to dominate the other continents outlined in his book Guns, Germs, and Steel.

For Deutsch, the sustained creation of knowledge could have arisen anywhere and led to a beginning of infinity; it just happened to arise in Europe first.

Deutsch extols the philosophical concept of optimism , where although problems are inevitable, solutions will always exist provided the right knowledge is sought out and acquired.

David Albert , a philosophy professor at Columbia University , has described the book in a New York Times review as "brilliant and exhilarating" but presenting, instead of a "tight, grand, cumulative system of ideas," a "great, wide, learned, meandering conversation.

But when he tries to apply his ideas to aesthetics, cultural creativity and moral philosophy, he seems on shakier ground and is less commanding as a result.

Mr Deutsch argues that decent explanations inform moral philosophy, political philosophy and even aesthetics. He is provocative and persuasive.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The Beginning of Infinity Hardcover edition. It is, for example, presumed impossible for any type of body to have infinite mass or infinite energy.

Concepts of infinite things such as an infinite plane wave exist, but there are no experimental means to generate them.

The practice of refusing infinite values for measurable quantities does not come from a priori or ideological motivations, but rather from more methodological and pragmatic motivations [ disputed — discuss ] [ citation needed ].

One of the needs of any physical and scientific theory is to give usable formulas that correspond to or at least approximate reality.

As an example, if any object of infinite gravitational mass were to exist, any usage of the formula to calculate the gravitational force would lead to an infinite result, which would be of no benefit since the result would be always the same regardless of the position and the mass of the other object.

The formula would be useful neither to compute the force between two objects of finite mass nor to compute their motions.

If an infinite mass object were to exist, any object of finite mass would be attracted with infinite force and hence acceleration by the infinite mass object, which is not what we can observe in reality.

Sometimes infinite result of a physical quantity may mean that the theory being used to compute the result may be approaching the point where it fails.

This may help to indicate the limitations of a theory. This point of view does not mean that infinity cannot be used in physics.

For convenience's sake, calculations, equations, theories and approximations often use infinite series , unbounded functions , etc. Physicists however require that the end result be physically meaningful.

In quantum field theory infinities arise which need to be interpreted in such a way as to lead to a physically meaningful result, a process called renormalization.

However, there are some theoretical circumstances where the end result is infinity. One example is the singularity in the description of black holes.

Some solutions of the equations of the general theory of relativity allow for finite mass distributions of zero size, and thus infinite density.

This is an example of what is called a mathematical singularity , or a point where a physical theory breaks down. This does not necessarily mean that physical infinities exist; it may mean simply that the theory is incapable of describing the situation properly.

Two other examples occur in inverse-square force laws of the gravitational force equation of Newtonian gravity and Coulomb's law of electrostatics.

The first published proposal that the universe is infinite came from Thomas Digges in Living beings inhabit these worlds. Cosmologists have long sought to discover whether infinity exists in our physical universe: Are there an infinite number of stars?

Does the universe have infinite volume? Does space "go on forever"? This is an open question of cosmology. The question of being infinite is logically separate from the question of having boundaries.

The two-dimensional surface of the Earth, for example, is finite, yet has no edge. By travelling in a straight line with respect to the Earth's curvature one will eventually return to the exact spot one started from.

The universe, at least in principle, might have a similar topology. If so, one might eventually return to one's starting point after travelling in a straight line through the universe for long enough.

The curvature of the universe can be measured through multipole moments in the spectrum of the cosmic background radiation. As to date, analysis of the radiation patterns recorded by the WMAP spacecraft hints that the universe has a flat topology.

This would be consistent with an infinite physical universe. However, the universe could be finite, even if its curvature is flat.

An easy way to understand this is to consider two-dimensional examples, such as video games where items that leave one edge of the screen reappear on the other.

The topology of such games is toroidal and the geometry is flat. Many possible bounded, flat possibilities also exist for three-dimensional space.

The concept of infinity also extends to the multiverse hypothesis, which, when explained by astrophysicists such as Michio Kaku , posits that there are an infinite number and variety of universes.

These are defined as the result of arithmetic overflow , division by zero , and other exceptional operations.

Some programming languages , such as Java [41] and J , [42] allow the programmer an explicit access to the positive and negative infinity values as language constants.

These can be used as greatest and least elements , as they compare respectively greater than or less than all other values.

They have uses as sentinel values in algorithms involving sorting , searching , or windowing. In languages that do not have greatest and least elements, but do allow overloading of relational operators , it is possible for a programmer to create the greatest and least elements.

In languages that do not provide explicit access to such values from the initial state of the program, but do implement the floating-point data type , the infinity values may still be accessible and usable as the result of certain operations.

Perspective artwork utilizes the concept of vanishing points , roughly corresponding to mathematical points at infinity , located at an infinite distance from the observer.

This allows artists to create paintings that realistically render space, distances, and forms. Escher is specifically known for employing the concept of infinity in his work in this and other ways.

Variations of chess played on an unbounded board are called infinite chess. Cognitive scientist George Lakoff considers the concept of infinity in mathematics and the sciences as a metaphor.

The symbol is often used romantically to represent eternal love. Several types of jewelry are fashioned into the infinity shape for this purpose.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses of "Infinity" and "Infinite", see Infinity disambiguation.

Cardinality and Ordinal number. Cardinality of the continuum. The Princeton Companion to Mathematics. Archived from the original on Extract of page Archived at the Wayback Machine.

Retrieved April 3, Haddad; VijaySekhar Chellaboina February 17, Nonlinear Dynamical Systems and Control: Archived from the original on April 4, Archived from the original on April 3, Annals of Library and Information Studies.

Retrieved 16 May Landmark Writings in Western Mathematics In Zalta, Edward N. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The Question of the Reality of Infinitesimal Magnitudes".

Archived from the original on 15 February Retrieved 16 February Retrieved 7 April Communicating the Science and Culture of Astrobiology illustrated ed.

In Quest of the Universe illustrated ed. Archived from the original on 1 June Retrieved 16 March Archived from the original on 10 April The Shape of Space.

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